EVS Logo

Empirical Research underlying the Method

EVS is the first quantitative research into underlying needs and personal values in a management context. It is also the first research to measure the operational and financial performance impact of executive values and other strategic leadership variables.

Please click here to read an executive summary of the research.

Validity and Reliability

Developed as part of doctoral research, the instruments have been rigorously developed and piloted and tested.



To ensure we are measuring values accurately (instead of attitudes or opinions!) EVS's main values measure has built upon previous research and draws on two values instruments making it the most comprehensive values instrument we've seen in use. Also it has been thoroughly tested with executives and managers so it makes sense.

Uniquely, EVS uses two separate measures of executive values to cross validate and assess the degree to which both measures' results are related.



To assess and ensure the consistency of a metric scale, a widely used and recommended diagnostic measure of reliability is Crombach's α (alpha). The List of Values of Executives (LOVE) instrument has a Crombach's α = .87, which indicates very high reliability. For research, .7 Crombach's α is acceptable.

Below is an indicative list of instruments we use depending on the project, with their reliability rating where appropriate:

Survey Instruments

Key Instruments





7 item scale comprising of:
3 item financial and 4 item operational measures

Cronbach α = .79
for 7 items

Strategic orientation

11 item scale with 4 alternative descriptions of the strategic types for each item

.69 test-retest reliability. Categoric.

Executive values

(i) 28 item List of Values (LoV) instruments

Cronbach α = .87

Organisational Goals

13 item goal scale

Cronbach α = .74

Managerial characteristics

Age, Level of education, Functional experience, Tenure

Ratios, Categoric

Firm characteristics

Firm age and size:
Age, Number of employees


Industry characteristics

5 item scale of industry product/service differentiation


Strategic decision influence

1 item scale from Power instrument


Activity: Now search on the web for other offerings measuring values and look for the reported reliability of their instruments. Can you say 'wild goose chase'? But don't take our word for it, Happy hunting!

P.s. If you do find information, we would be grateful to learn what you found: enquiry@evsconsulting.co.uk